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    the history of geometry

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    m14 the history of geometry

    مُساهمة من طرف teacher في الجمعة 09 مايو 2008, 8:38 pm

    Main article: History of geometry

    Woman teaching geometry. Illustration at the beginning of a medieval translation of Euclid's Elements, (c.1310)


    The earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley from around 3000 BC. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths, angles, areas, and volumes, which were developed to meet some practical need in surveying, construction, astronomy, and various crafts. The earliest known texts on geometry are the EgyptianRhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets, and the IndianShulba Sutras, while the Chinese had the work of Mozi, Zhang Heng, and the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, edited by Liu Hui.
    Euclid'sThe Elements of Geometry (c. 300 BCE) was one of the most important early texts on geometry, in which he presented geometry in an ideal axiomatic form, which came to be known as Euclidean geometry. The treatise is not, as is sometimes thought, a compendium of all that Hellenistic mathematicians knew about geometry at that time; rather, it is an elementary introduction to it;[2] Euclid himself wrote eight more advanced books on geometry. We know from other references that Euclid’s was not the first elementary geometry textbook, but the others fell into disuse and were lost.[citation needed]
    In the Middle Ages, Muslim mathematicians contributed to the development of geometry, especially algebraic geometry and geometric algebra. Al-Mahani (b. 853) conceived the idea of reducing geometrical problems such as duplicating the cube to problems in algebra. Thābit ibn Qurra (known as Thebit in Latin) (836-901) dealt with arithmetical operations applied to ratios of geometrical quantities, and contributed to the development of analytic geometry. Omar Khayyám (1048-1131) found geometric solutions to cubic equations, and his extensive studies of the parallel postulate contributed to the development of Non-Euclidian geometry.[citation needed]
    In the early 17th century, there were two important developments in geometry. The first, and most important, was the creation of analytic geometry, or geometry with coordinates and equations, by René Descartes (1596–1650) and Pierre de Fermat (1601–1665). This was a necessary precursor to the development of calculus and a precise quantitative science of physics. The second geometric development of this period was the systematic study of projective geometry by Girard Desargues (1591–1661). Projective geometry is the study of geometry without measurement, just the study of how points align with each other.
    Two developments in geometry in the nineteenth century changed the way it had been studied previously. These were the discovery of non-Euclidean geometries by Lobachevsky, Bolyai and Gauss and of the formulation of symmetry as the central consideration in the Erlangen Programme of Felix Klein (which generalized the Euclidean and non Euclidean geometries). Two of the master geometers of the time were Bernhard Riemann, working primarily with tools from mathematical analysis, and introducing the Riemann surface, and Henri Poincaré, the founder of algebraic topology and the geometric theory of dynamical systems.
    As a consequence of these major changes in the conception of geometry, the concept of "space" became something rich and varied, and the natural background for theories as different as complex analysis and classical mechanics. The traditional type of geometry was recognized as that of homogeneous spaces, those spaces which have a sufficient supply of symmetry, so that from point to point they look just the same.



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    m14 رد: the history of geometry

    مُساهمة من طرف Asmaa Mahmoud في السبت 10 مايو 2008, 1:14 pm

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    m14 رد: the history of geometry

    مُساهمة من طرف mezooo125 في السبت 10 مايو 2008, 8:59 pm

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      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الجمعة 09 ديسمبر 2016, 11:17 pm