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    what is geometry



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    m14 what is geometry

    مُساهمة من طرف teacher في الجمعة 09 مايو 2008, 8:43 pm

    What is geometry?

    Visual proof
    of the Pythagorean theorem for the (3, 4, 5) triangle as in the Chou Pei Suan Ching 500–200 BC.

    Recorded development of geometry spans more than two millennia. It is hardly surprising that perceptions of what constituted geometry evolved throughout the ages. The geometric paradigms presented below should be viewed as '
    Pictures at an exhibition' of a sort: they do not exhaust the subject of geometry but rather reflect some of its defining themes.

    Practical geometry

    There is little doubt that geometry originated as a practical science, concerned with surveying, measurements, areas, and volumes. Among the notable accomplishments one finds formulas for
    lengths, areas and volumes, such as Pythagorean theorem, circumference and area of a circle, area of a triangle, volume of a cylinder, sphere, and a pyramid. Development of astronomy led to emergence of trigonometry and spherical trigonometry, together with the attendant computational techniques.

    Axiomatic geometry

    A method of computing certain inaccessible distances or heights based on
    similarity of geometric figures and attributed to Thales presaged more abstract approach to geometry taken by Euclid in his Elements, one of the most influential books ever written. Euclid introduced certain axioms, or postulates, expressing primary or self-evident properties of points, lines, and planes. He proceeded to rigorously deduce other properties by mathematical reasoning. The characteristic feature of Euclid's approach to geometry was its rigour. In the twentieth century, David Hilbert employed axiomatic reasoning in his attempt to update Euclid and provide modern foundations of geometry.

    Geometric constructions

    Ancient scientists paid special attention to constructing geometric objects that had been described in some other way. Classical instruments allowed in geometric constructions are the
    compass and straightedge. However, some problems turned out to be difficult or impossible to solve by these means alone, and ingenious constructions using parabolas and other curves, as well as mechanical devices, were found. The approach to geometric problems with geometric or mechanical means is known as synthetic geometry.

    Numbers in geometry

    Pythagoreans considered the role of numbers in geometry. However, the discovery of incommensurable lengths, which contradicted their philosophical views, made them abandon (abstract) numbers in favour of (concrete) geometric quantities, such as length and area of figures. Numbers were reintroduced into geometry in the form of coordinates by Descartes, who realized that the study of geometric shapes can be facilitated by their algebraic representation. Analytic geometry applies methods of algebra to geometric questions, typically by relating geometric curves and algebraic equations. These ideas played a key role in the development of calculus in the seventeenth century and led to discovery of many new properties of plane curves. Modern algebraic geometry considers similar questions on a vastly more abstract level.


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    Asmaa Mahmoud
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    m14 رد: what is geometry

    مُساهمة من طرف Asmaa Mahmoud في السبت 10 مايو 2008, 1:12 pm

    حلو اوي اوي الموضوع ده لذيذ اوي
    تسلم ايديك يا شادي


      الوقت/التاريخ الآن هو الأربعاء 07 ديسمبر 2016, 4:21 pm